Meet Stainless Steel Alloy 416

In the early 1900’s a lab in England was investigating ways to eliminate rust in gun barrels and from this led to the creation of stainless steel. By adding a minimum amount of 10.5% chromium to steel the material becomes “stainless steel.”

Alloy 416 is a Martensitic grade alloy. It is a variation of the standard 410, but it has increased sulfur for higher machining. 416 is used in products that require higher machinability. Higher machinability does sacrifice some of its corrosion resistance.  It is not suitable for marine or any chloride exposure situations. However, it can handle applications that resist atmospheric oxidation, mildly corrosive chemicals, and wet and dry corrosion environments found in steam and gas turbine parts, bearings, and cutlery.


Stainless Steel Alloy 416 Key Facts:

  • 416 makes up 7-8% of the overall stainless steel market
  • 416 is a Martensitic grade, along with the other 400 series alloys (410, 420, 431, 440A, 440B, 440C)
  • 416 is one of the best free machining grades, it is better than 303
  • 416 can only be hardened by heat treatment
  • 416 is magnetic
  • 416 hardness:
    • Condition A (annealed): RC 26 max
    • Condition T (intermediate temper condition): RC 24-32
    • Condition H (hard temper condition): RC 31-38
  • Typical 416 end uses:
    • Pump shafts
    • Valve stems
    • Axels
    • Gears
    • Bolts and screws

Stainless Steel Bar Machinability (Best to least) Comparisons:

    • 416
    • 430F
    • 303
    • 17-4 H1150
    • 17-4 Condition A
    • 304 / 304L
    • 316 / 316L

 


Martensitic Family Tree

media-20171206


Fabrication Properties:

  1. Formability/Workability: Poor
  2. Weldability: Not recommended
  3. Strength: High
  4. Corrosion Resistance: Good
  5. Machinability: 85% – High

Chemical Composition:

  • Carbon – Max% – 0.15
  • Chromium – Min% 12, Max%-14
  • Manganese – Max%1.25
  • Silicon – Min% 1
  • Sulfur – Max% 0.15
  • Phosphorus – Max% 0.06
  • Molybdenum – Max% 0.6

Physical Properties:

  • Density, lb/in3: 0.28
  • Specific Heat, BTU/°F/Lb 32—212°F: 0.11
  • Thermal Conductivity, BTU/Ft2/Ft/Hr/°F 212°F: 14.4
  • Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion, Per °F x 10-6,32—212°F: 5.5
  • Electrical, Resistivity, Microhm-cm 70°F: 57
  • Magnetic, Permeability, Annealed, μ: 700-1000

Mechanical Properties: (in the annealed condition)

  • Tensile Strength, ksi: 75
  • Yield Strength, ksi: 40
  • Elongation in 2 inches, %: 30
  • Reduction of Area, %: 65
  • Brinell Hardness: 155

Copper and Brass offers 416 in round bar and hexagon bar. Both are supplied in 12 foot mill lengths. The round bar is offered in 0.125 – 3.5 inch diameter in cold finish and in 3.125 – 9 inch diameter in rough turned. The hex bar is cold drawn and comes in 0.25 – 2 inch. All 416 bar products meet specification AMS 5610 and ASTM A 582.


Please download the Stainless Steel Stock Guide (PDF) for ordering information

Stainless-steel-stock-guide

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